Three new major evidence reviews for the
European Commission are now available
Over the last year or so we have been conducting three major evidence reviews
for the European Commission’s Directorate-General for
Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion.
We were given the opportunity to present findings to the EU’s Social Protection
Committee, the European Social Policy Network and at a half-day seminar at the
European Commission. We are pleased to inform you that these evidence
reviews have just been published by the Commission and are free to download.
Evidence review - Creating More Equal Societies: What Works?
by Abigail McKnight, Magali Duque and Mark Rucci
this review is to assess the effectiveness of
education, wage setting institutions and welfare states in reducing inequality.
Education both empowers people and provides them with tradeable skills to secure
a decent income – greater equality in individuals’ ability to generate income in
the labour market is key to producing more equitable outcomes.
Evidence shows that
imbalances in power result in some workers being underpaid while others are
overpaid. Collective wage bargaining
and minimum wages
have proved to be successful
in reducing wage inequality.
power which has allowed them to
take an increasing share of the wagebill to the
detriment of other workers
and form a politically powerful elite,
need further development.
need to evolve
to meet the
challenges of ‘new inequalities’
and changing employment landscapes, but are essential now and
will continue to be essential in the future
to help individuals redistribute income over their own lives as well as between
the rich and poor.
Evidence review - Low pay and in-work poverty: preventative measures and
by Abigail McKnight, Kitty Stewart, Sam Mohun Himmelweit
and Marco Palillo
highlights the benefits of preventing individuals entering low paid work as they
can become trapped in low paid jobs or end up cycle between unemployment and
precarious, low quality work. In countries
where collective wage bargaining institutions
or even disappeared in the latter part of the 20th Century,
governments have been forced to piece together
a number of policies
to replace the role they played in creating wage floors and reducing inequality.
Reducing the incidence of low pay also has the benefit of reducing in-work
However, the review emphasises that
an effective anti-poverty strategy requires a
portfolio of additional measures
as well – not all low paid workers are living in poor households and not all
workers living in poor households are low paid. These additional measures
include improving job stability and quality,
and encouraging greater sharing of paid and unpaid work within the household,
and – crucially –
supporting families with children
child benefits and/or tax credits
to lower earning households. The role of the latter is particularly important,
both because of the higher incidence of in-work poverty in households with
children, and because of the long-term consequences of growing up in poverty for
children’s lives and opportunities.
Evidence review - The Strength of the Link between Income Support and Activation
by Abigail McKnight and Arnaud Vaganay
integration of the administration of income
support claims and public employment services
in many countries
has had a number of benefits
which include cost savings, reinforcement of the link between benefit receipt
and the need to find work, and easier access to labour market programmes.
effectiveness of linking activation with income support receipt depends on the
suitability of the activation programme. The
in the short-term activation programmes that
‘push’ jobseekers into work may appear to be more effective
than programmes that invest in the employability of jobseekers.
in the longer term
there is a greater tendency for jobseekers pushed to take the first available
job to cycle between unemployment and precarious forms of employment while
programmes that seek to improve the job match
and enhance the skills of jobseekers result in better longer term employment
News Posted: 01 July 2016
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