CASE LSE RSS Email Twitter Facebook

You searched for "pensions"

Listed most recent first.

The Coalition's Record on Cash Transfers, Poverty and Inequality 2010-2015

John Hills,  January 2015
Paper No' SPCCWP11: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf) | Summary (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; welfare benefits and policy; social policy; benefits; distributions of economic outcomes; income poverty; tax and benefit policy; wealth inequality

Were we really all in it together? The distributional effects of the UK Coalition government's tax-benefit policy changes

Paola De Agostini,  John Hills,  Holly Sutherland,  November 2014
Paper No' SPCCWP10: Full paper (pdf)
Paper copy now out of print.
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; welfare benefits and policy; pensions; deficit; reduction; cuts; fiscal; benefits; recession; crisis; coalition; tax; social policy in a cold climate; government; universal credit

Labour's Record on Cash Transfers, Poverty, Inequality and the Lifecycle 1997 - 2010

John Hills,  July 2013
Paper No' SPCCWP05: Full paper (pdf) | Summary (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; welfare benefits and policy; social policy; benefits; distributions of economic outcomes; income poverty; tax and benefit policy; wealth inequality

Re-visiting the conceptual framework for public/private boundaries in welfare

Tania Burchardt,  April 2013
Paper No' SPCCRN002: Full paper (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; welfare benefits and policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; social policy in a cold climate; private welfare

Social Policy in a Cold Climate: A Framework for Analysing the Effects of Social Policy

Tania Burchardt,  John Hills,  Ruth Lupton,  Kitty Stewart,  Polly Vizard,  April 2013
Paper No' SPCCRN001: Full paper (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; welfare benefits and policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; public spending; welfare state; coalition; labour; financial crisis; cuts; social policy in a cold climate

How best to measure pension adequacy

Aaron George Grech,  April 2013
Paper No' CASE/172: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; pensions; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; social security and public pensions; retirement; poverty; retirement policies

What Gives? Household Consumption Patterns and the 'Big Trade Off' with Public Consumption

Francesca Bastagli,  John Hills,  March 2013
Paper No' CASE/170: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; welfare benefits and policy; household consumption; government spending; government consumption; international comparisons

Evaluating the possible impact of pension reforms on future living standards in Europe

Aaron George Grech,  May 2012
Paper No' CASE/161: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; pensions; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; social security; public pensions; retirement; poverty; retirement policies

The Shifting Balance of Private and Public Welfare Activity in the United Kingdom, 1979 to 2007

Daniel Edmiston,  December 2011
Paper No' CASE/155: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; welfare benefits and policy; children, families and education; schools and education; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; housing, neighbourhoods and environment; housing; health and social care; health; social care; regions and area inequalities; cities; private provision; public provision; welfare system; public expenditure; health; education; social security; housing; personal care

A Wealth Tax Abandoned: The role of the UK Treasury 1974-6

Howard Glennerster,  June 2011
Paper No' CASE/147: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; wealth and social mobility; wealth and assets; tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; wealth tax; policy process; uk treasury

Fiscal costs of climate mitigation programmes in the UK: A challenge for social policy?

Sam Marden,  Ian Gough,  June 2011
Paper No' CASE/145: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; welfare benefits and policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; housing, neighbourhoods and environment; environment, energy efficiency and climate change; carbon mitigation policy; social policy; fiscal competition

Assessing the sustainability of pension reforms in Europe

Aaron George Grech,  September 2010
Paper No' CASE/140: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; pensions; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; social security and public pensions; retirement; poverty; retirement policies

An Anatomy of Economic Inequality in the UK - Report of the National Equality Panel

John Hills,  January 2010
Paper No' CASEreport 60: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)

Summary:
The report looks at the relationship between people’s economic outcomes and their characteristics and finds that inequalities in people's economic positions are also related to their characteristics such as gender, age, ethnicity, religion and education.


Tags: employment and income; employment and the labour market; income inequalities; wealth and social mobility; wealth and assets; tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; intergenerational and social mobility; children, families and education; schools and education; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; equality, capabilities and human rights; disability; housing, neighbourhoods and environment; housing; neighbourhoods and communities; health and social care; social care; regions and area inequalities; cities; inequality; economic inequalities in the uk; educational outcomes; employment status; wages and earnings; individual income; incomes on a household basis; household wealth; distributions of economic outcomes; education; employment; wages and earnings; gender; age; ethnicity and religion; disability; sexual orientation; social class; housing tenure; nation and region; area deprivation;

Women’s family histories and incomes in later life in the UK, US and West Germany

Maria Evandrou,  Jane Falkingham,  Tom Sefton,  June 2009
Paper No' CASE/138: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; employment and the labour market; income inequalities; tax, benefits and pensions; welfare benefits and policy; pensions; children, families and education; children and child poverty; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; equality, capabilities and human rights; methodology, concepts and measures; measurement, concepts and measures; comparative; older women; pensions; work history; life course

The relationship between women’s work histories and incomes in later life in the UK, US and West Germany

Tom Sefton,  Jane Falkingham,  Maria Evandrou,  June 2009
Paper No' CASE/137: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; employment and the labour market; income inequalities; tax, benefits and pensions; welfare benefits and policy; pensions; children, families and education; children and child poverty; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; equality, capabilities and human rights; methodology, concepts and measures; measurement, concepts and measures; comparative; older women; pensions; work history; life course

Family ties: Women’s work and family histories and their association with incomes in later life in the UK

Tom Sefton,  Maria Evandrou,  Jane Falkingham,  December 2008
Paper No' CASE/135: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; employment and the labour market; income inequalities; tax, benefits and pensions; pensions; children, families and education; children and child poverty; older women; pensions; work history; family history; life course; retirement incomes

The Impact of Policy Change on Job Retention and Advancement

Richard Dickens,  Abigail McKnight,  October 2008
Paper No' CASE/134: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; employment and the labour market; tax, benefits and pensions; welfare benefits and policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; labour market; welfare reform; job retention

Welfare Reform in the United States: Implications for British Social Policy (with commentaries by Kitty Stewart, David Piachaud and Howard Glennerster)

James Midgley,  April 2008
Paper No' CASE/131: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)

Summary:
The findings of a number of outcome studies assessing the impact and effectiveness of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) are reviewed and commentaries consider how far American experience should be a guide to welfare policy in Britain.


Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; welfare benefits and policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; methodology, concepts and measures; measurement, concepts and measures; welfare reform; comparative public policy; united states; uk

Welfare Reforms and Child Well-Being in the US and UK

Jane Waldfogel,  July 2007
Paper No' CASE/126: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; welfare benefits and policy; children, families and education; children and child poverty; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; welfare; poverty; expenditures; child well-being

Pension Policy in EU25 and its Possible Impact on Elderly Poverty

Asghar Zaidi,  Aaron George Grech,  Michael Fuchs,  December 2006
Paper No' CASE/116: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; pensions; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; social security and public pensions; retirement; retirement policies; private pensions

Tibor Barna: The redistributive impact of taxes and social policies in the UK: 1937-2005

Howard Glennerster,  December 2006
Paper No' CASE/115: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; income inequalities; wealth and social mobility; wealth and assets; tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; income redistribution; taxation; social benefits

Work-Life Balance in a Low-Income Neighbourhood

Hartley Dean,  Alice Coulter,  November 2006
Paper No' CASE/114: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; employment and the labour market; wealth and social mobility; wealth and assets; tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; children, families and education; children and child poverty; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; work-life balance; low-income; employment rights; tax credits; childcare

Transition from Work to Retirement in EU25

Asghar Zaidi,  Mattia Makovec,  Michael Fuchs,  October 2006
Paper No' CASE/112: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; employment and the labour market; tax, benefits and pensions; pensions; retirement; retirement policies; labour force and employment; labour force and employment size; labour force and employment structure

From Beveridge to Turner: Demography, Distribution and the Future of Pensions in the UK

John Hills,  June 2006
Paper No' CASE/110: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; pensions; wealth and social mobility; intergenerational and social mobility; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; employment and income; demographic change; pensions; retirement incomes; social security

Exploring the effects of integrated benefit systems and active labour market policies: Evidence from Jobcentre Plus in the UK

Eleni Karagiannaki,  February 2006
Paper No' CASE/107: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; employment and the labour market; tax, benefits and pensions; welfare benefits and policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; methodology, concepts and measures; measurement, concepts and measures; jobcentre plus; welfare-to-work; non-jobseekers; policy evaluation

Changes in the Living Arrangements of Elderly People in Greece: 1974-1999

Eleni Karagiannaki,  November 2005
Paper No' CASE 104: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; pensions; wealth and social mobility; intergenerational and social mobility; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; health and social care; social care; employment and income; elderly; intergenerational living arrangements; greece; poverty

Expenditure Patterns Post-Welfare Reform in the UK: Are low-income families starting to catch up?

Paul Gregg,  Jane Waldfogel,  Elizabeth Washbrook,  May 2005
Paper No' CASE 099: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)

Summary:
This paper finds post 1998 UK welfare reforms children in low-income families were catching up in terms of their families’ spending in the overall areas of housing and utilities, food, clothing, leisure goods and services, and motoring and travel. The evidence also suggests reduced spending on alcohol and tobacco.


Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; welfare benefits and policy; children, families and education; children and child poverty; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; child poverty; family expenditures; welfare reform; difference-in-difference

Jobcentre Plus or Minus? Exploring the performance of Jobcentre Plus for non-jobseekers

Eleni Karagiannaki,  March 2005
Paper No' CASE 097: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; employment and the labour market; tax, benefits and pensions; welfare benefits and policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; methodology, concepts and measures; measurement, concepts and measures; jobcentre plus; welfare-to-work; non-jobseekers; policy evaluation

Perceptions of Redistribution: Report on exploratory qualitative research

Alan Hedges,  March 2005
Paper No' CASE 096: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; wealth and social mobility; wealth and assets; tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; welfare benefits and policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; equality, capabilities and human rights; redistribution; attitudes; taxation; public spending

Knowing what is good for you: Empirical analysis of personal preferences and the 'objective good'

Orsolya Lelkes,  March 2005
Paper No' CASE 094: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; equality, capabilities and human rights; disability; health and social care; health; regions and area inequalities; area inequalities; quality of life; capabilities; happiness; basic needs; economic transition

Public and Private Welfare Activity in the United Kingdom, 1979 to 1999

Rachel Smithies,  March 2005
Paper No' CASE 093: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; welfare benefits and policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; welfare; social spending; privatisation; contracting-out; public provision; private provision

Helter Skelter: Families, disabled children and the benefit system

Gabrielle Preston,  February 2005
Paper No' CASE 092: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)

Summary:
Families report that DLA makes a significant difference, not just for the disabled child but for the whole family but when repeatedly downrated or withdrawn generates considerable fluctuations in income and high levels of stress and ill health. The report outlines issues that must be addressed if reduce poverty amongst disabled children is to be reduced.


Tags: employment and income; employment and the labour market; tax, benefits and pensions; welfare benefits and policy; children, families and education; children and child poverty; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; equality, capabilities and human rights; disability; health and social care; social care; appeals; benefits; disability; employment; extra costs; poverty; services; social exclusion; special needs; social inclusion; take-up; welfare rights

Income Mobility in Old Age in Britain and Germany

Asghar Zaidi,  Joachim R. Frick,  Felix Büchel,  December 2004
Paper No' CASE 089: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; income inequalities; tax, benefits and pensions; pensions; wealth and social mobility; intergenerational and social mobility; income mobility; old age; pensions; britain and germany

Employment, Family Union, and Childbearing Decisions in Great Britain

Arnstein Aassve,  Simon Burgess,  Matt Dickson,  Carol Propper,  April 2004
Paper No' CASE 084: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; employment and the labour market; tax, benefits and pensions; pensions; wealth and social mobility; intergenerational and social mobility; children, families and education; children and child poverty; demographic transitions; marriage; divorce; birth; employment

Inclusion or Insurance? National Insurance and the future of the contributory principle

John Hills,  May 2003
Paper No' CASE 068: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; income inequalities; tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; pensions; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; social insurance; social security; pensions; direct taxation

Changing Poverty Post-1997

David Piachaud,  Holly Sutherland,  December 2002
Paper No' CASE 063: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Paper copy now out of print.
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; welfare benefits and policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; poverty; welfare policy

Recent Changes in the Distribution of the Social Wage

Tom Sefton,  December 2002
Paper No' CASE 062: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; wealth and social mobility; wealth and assets; tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; welfare benefits and policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; social wage; benefits in kind; redistribution; inequality; welfare spending

Capital and the Determinants of Poverty and Social Exclusion

David Piachaud,  September 2002
Paper No' CASE 060: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; poverty; social exclusion; social capital; economic growth

Tasting Freedom: Happiness, religion and economic transition

Orsolya Lelkes,  August 2002
Paper No' CASE 059: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; wealth and social mobility; wealth and assets; tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; equality, capabilities and human rights; health and social care; health; happiness; economic transition; religion; entrepreneurs

Smart Growth: The Future of the American Metropolis?

Bruce Katz,  July 2002
Paper No' CASE 058: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; wealth and social mobility; wealth and assets; tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; housing, neighbourhoods and environment; housing; neighbourhoods and communities; regions and area inequalities; cities; area inequalities; localisation; smart growth; sprawl; metropolitan governance; decentralisation; urban revitalisation; economic competitiveness; sustainability; tax and regulatory policy

Welfare Reform and Lone Mothers' Employment in the US

Sheldon Danziger,  Sandra K. Danziger,  Kristin Seefeldt,  Jane Waldfogel,  June 2001
Paper No' CASE 047: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; employment and the labour market; tax, benefits and pensions; welfare benefits and policy; children, families and education; children and child poverty; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; welfare; lone mothers; employment

Why rising tides don't lift all boats? An explanation of the relationship between poverty and unemployment in Britain

Simon Burgess,  Karen Gardiner,  Carol Propper,  February 2001
Paper No' CASE 046: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; employment and the labour market; tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; poverty; unemployment; economic cycle

Satisfaction and Expectations: Attitudes to public services in deprived areas

Bobby Duffy,  December 2000
Paper No' CASE 045: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; equality, capabilities and human rights; housing, neighbourhoods and environment; neighbourhoods and communities; regions and area inequalities; area inequalities; localisation; satisfaction; public services; deprived neighbourhoods

Getting Less for More: Economic Evaluation in the Social Welfare Field

Tom Sefton,  November 2000
Paper No' CASE 044: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; methodology, concepts and measures; measurement, concepts and measures; economic evaluation; social welfare; methodology

Taxation for the Enabling State

John Hills,  August 2000
Paper No' CASE 041: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; wealth and social mobility; wealth and assets; tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; equality, capabilities and human rights; tax; public spending; inequality; public attitudes; redistribution

Measuring Income Risk

Simon Burgess,  Karen Gardiner,  Stephen P Jenkins,  Carol Propper,  June 2000
Paper No' CASE 040: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; income inequalities; tax, benefits and pensions; pensions; wealth and social mobility; intergenerational and social mobility; income risk; demographics; panel data

How Effective is the British Government's Attempt to Reduce Child Poverty?

David Piachaud,  Holly Sutherland,  March 2000
Paper No' CASE 038: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; wealth and social mobility; wealth and assets; tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; welfare benefits and policy; children, families and education; children and child poverty; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; child poverty; tax and benefit policy; welfare-to-work

Income Transfers to the Elderly in East Asia: Testing Asian Values

Huck-ju Kwon,  June 1999
Paper No' CASE 027: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; wealth and social mobility; wealth and assets; tax, benefits and pensions; pensions; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; public pensions; retirement policy; east asia

The Evolution of Disability Benefits in the UK: Re-weighting the basket

Tania Burchardt,  June 1999
Paper No' CASE 026: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; welfare benefits and policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; disability; disability benefits; welfare reform

Partnership in Pensions? Responses to the Pensions Green Paper

Phil Agulnik,  Nicholas Barr,  Jane Falkingham,  Katherine Rake,  April 1999
Paper No' CASE 024: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Paper copy now out of print.
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; pensions; new contract for welfare; partnership in pensions; uk retirement income system

Tightropes and Tripwires: New Labour's Proposals and Means-testing in Old Age

Martin Evans,  Jane Falkingham,  Katherine Rake,  April 1999
Paper No' CASE 023: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; income inequalities; tax, benefits and pensions; pensions; pensions; income guarantees

Welfare in Transition: Trends in Poverty and Well-being in Central Asia

Jane Falkingham,  February 1999
Paper No' CASE 020: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; wealth and social mobility; wealth and assets; tax, benefits and pensions; welfare benefits and policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; central asia; transition economies; poverty; living standards; welfare

The Decline of Employment Among Older People in Britain

Nigel Campbell,  January 1999
Paper No' CASE 019: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Paper copy now out of print.
Tags: employment and income; employment and the labour market; tax, benefits and pensions; pensions; labour force participation; older workers

Thatcherism, New Labour and the Welfare State (chapter in 'New Labour: A turning point in British Politics', H Kastgendiek and R Stimshoff (eds), Philo, 1999)

John Hills,  August 1998
Paper No' CASE 013: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; welfare benefits and policy; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; welfare state; welfare reform; thatcherism

Social Welfare Systems in East Asia: A Comparative Analysis including Private Welfare

Didier Jacobs,  July 1998
Paper No' CASE 010: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Paper copy now out of print.
Tags: employment and income; income inequalities; wealth and social mobility; wealth and assets; tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; welfare benefits and policy; children, families and education; children and child poverty; poverty, exclusion and equalities; poverty and social exclusion; east asia; japan; korea; taiwan; hong kong; singapore; welfare; private welfare; social security; income distribution; enterprise welfare; family welfare; public expenditure

Tax Relief and Partnership Pensions (A version of this paper has now been published in the journal Fiscal Studies, vol.19 No.4 ,1998)

Phil Agulnik,  Julian Le Grand,  February 1998
Paper No' CASE 005: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: employment and income; wealth and social mobility; wealth and assets; tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; pensions; pensions; tax; tax relief

Boundaries between Public and Private Welfare: a typology and map of services (publ.as Private Welfare and Public Policy, Burchardt, Hills and Propper, Rowntree Foundation, Jan 1999)

Tania Burchardt,  November 1997
Paper No' CASE 002: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; taxation and economic policy; welfare benefits and policy; private welfare; privatisation; government expenditure

The Legacy of Parental Divorce: Social, economic and demographic experiences in adulthood

Kathleen E Kiernan,  October 1997
Paper No' CASE 001: Read Abstract | Full paper (pdf)
Tags: tax, benefits and pensions; pensions; wealth and social mobility; intergenerational and social mobility; children, families and education; children and child poverty; employment and income; divorce; demography; impact on children