Published December 2000
From a detailed analysis of the roles of childhood experience, schooling and educational qualifications in the emergence of adult social exclusion, two key patterns emerge: Educational qualifications show a strong relationship to all 36 measures of adult disadvantage (at ages 23 and 33 for both men and women; and the association is generally stronger at age 33 than at age 23. This relationship emerges net of controls for a wide range of childhood factors. Childhood poverty is the most frequent clear predictor of negative adult outcomes. Additionally: Mother's interest in schooling is more salient for women, whilst father's interest matters more for men; Low parental interest in schooling, frequent absence from school, and low educational test scores are all quite influential on subsequent disadvantage, even net of qualification levels; Early contact with the police is more closely related to adult outcomes for men, but school absences are more influential for women. Specific continuities in exclusion also emerge: The father being in Social Classes IV or V remains a clear predictor of male survey members also being in these Classes at ages 23 and 33; Growing up in social housing shows a similar specific legacy of being in social housing for both men and women at ages 23 and 33; Childhood behaviour indicators most specifically relate to adult malaise.